傅正明:莎士比亚诗歌新译

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纪念威廉·莎士比亚诞辰450周年(William Shakespeare 1654-2014)

029.安哲鲁,在你的生命中有一种品格

文森修公爵

安哲鲁,在你的生命中有一种品格,
在我眼裏书写着你的履历,
一览无余。你自己和你所有的一切,
并非你的专利,独善其身
便是懿德的浪费,太可惜。
上天生下的我们,好比我们擎起的火炬,
火熊熊不仅仅照亮自身;因为我们的懿德
倘若只能自惠自利,
那就等于零。精神气质不能触摸
却有高尚目的,造物的精彩手笔
滴墨点彩,不会白白借给你,
像一位节俭的女神,她亲自
确定自己作为债权人的荣誉,
要求感恩,要求物尽其用。我对你
说这番话之前,原本应当先听你的建议,
让我们坚持不渝,安哲鲁――,
如果我不在场,你就是全权代表,
维也纳的生死和施恩罚罪
全在你的政令善意:年高的
爱斯卡勒斯受命在先,也要辅佐你。
请你接受谕旨。

——《一报还一报》第一幕第一场

Angelo, There Is A Kind Of Character In Thy Life

Duck Vincentio

Angelo,There is a kind of character in thy life,
That to the observer doth thy history
Fully unfold. Thyself and thy belongings
Are not thine own so proper as to waste
Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee.
Heaven doth with us as we with torches do,
Not light them for themselves; for if our virtues
Did not go forth of us, ’twere all alike
As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touch’d
But to fine issues, nor Nature never lends
The smallest scruple of her excellence
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines
Herself the glory of a creditor,
Both thanks and use. But I do bend my speech
To one that can my part in him advertise;
Hold therefore, Angelo:–
In our remove be thou at full ourself;
Mortality and mercy in Vienna
Live in thy tongue and heart: old Escalus,
Though first in question, is thy secondary.
Take thy commission.

Measure for Measure, Act I, Scene.I

七绝五首

一.赏我花衣

世界蒙尘遍体脏,
清污除垢有良方:
请君让我说真话,
赏我花衣笑帝王。

——《皆大欢喜》第二幕第七场

Invest Me In My Motley

Invest me in my motley. Give me leave
To speak my mind, and I will through and through
Cleanse the foul body of th’ infected world,
If they will patiently receive my medicine.

As You Like It, Act II, Scene IIV

注:这是剧中人杰奎斯吟颂的诗句,杰奎斯是剧中流亡公爵的从臣和哲人,长于观察,喜欢冷嘲热讽。

二.美是嘉行

天无污迹人多染,
心术歪邪即病残:
美是嘉行却中毒,
内魔擅织浮华衫。

——《第十二夜》第三幕第四场

Virtue Is Beauty

In nature there’s no blemish but the mind;
None can be call’d deform’d but the unkind:
Virtue is beauty, but the beauteous evil
Are empty trunks o’erflourish’d by the devil.

Twelfth Night, Act III, Scene IV

注:这是剧中的船员安东尼奥吟颂的诗行。

三. 人若生来非贵胄

人若生来非贵胄,
心安陋室胜豪门,
浮光华服内中苦,
金玉枝头枯叶心。

——《亨利八世》第二幕第三场

‘Tis Better To Be Lowly Born

‘Tis better to be lowly born,
And range with humble livers in content,
Than to be perked up in a glistering grief
And wear a golden sorrow.

Henry VIII, Act II, Scene III

注:出自剧中人安·波琳谈论被国王驱逐的凯瑟琳王后时说的台词。

四.火炬吟

火炬松明非为己,
熊熊照亮夜行人。
德行在我应他惠,
不负苍天原道心。

——《一报还一报》第一幕第一场

Torches

Thyself and thy belongings
Are not thine own so proper as to waste
Thyself upon thy virtues, they on thee.
Heaven doth with us as we with torches do,
Not light them for themselves; for if our virtues 5
Did not go forth of us, ’twere all alike
As if we had them not.

Measure for Measure , Act I, Scene.I

注:这是剧中的文森修公爵在赞美安哲鲁的利他主义品格时的一断台词。后来出任临时摄政的安哲鲁实际上有伪善的一面。

五.墓志铭

请君多念耶稣情,
勿掘黄尘惊睡魂。
祝福精心护墓者,
降愆移骨动坟人。

The epitaph

Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare,
To digg the dvst encloased heare.
Bleste be ye man yt spares thes stones,
And cvrst be he yt moves my bones.

(现代英语拼写: Good friend, for Jesus’ sake forbear,/To dig the dust enclosed here./Blessed be the man that spares these stones, /And cursed be he that moves my bones.)

注:依照传统说法,威廉·莎士比亚,于1564年4月23日生于埃文河畔斯特拉特福小镇,16世纪末到17世纪初的20多年间在伦敦成为演员、剧作家和诗人,1616年4月 23日逝世,葬于当地圣三一教堂,墓碑上镌刻着这首“墓志铭”。有关莎翁的私人生活的记载甚少,他生前的签名有Willian Shakspere 等不一致的手迹。署名William Shakespeare的莎剧第一对折本是在他身后七年于1623年出版的。莎士比亚全部作品究竟出自谁的手笔,留下众说纷纭的难以破解之谜,日渐形成了质疑传统说法的怀疑派。两派的争执,在纪念莎士比亚诞辰450周年之际,高潮迭起。依照怀疑派的推测,主要的背后写手或以此为笔名的作者,有英国诗人和剧作家爱德华·德·维尔,第十七世牛津公爵(Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford,1550-1604)和英国哲学家和作家弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon,1561-1626)等人。除了莎翁的遗嘱之外,“墓志铭”是他本人唯一的真迹。

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